As of the 2001 Indian census, Mavelikkara had a population of 28,440. Males constitute 47% of the population and females 53%. Mavelikkara has an average literacy rate of 86%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy is 87% and female literacy is 85%. In Mavelikkara, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.
Some of the industries in and around Mavelikkara are:
- Allind Steel (near Mannar)
- Travancore Oxygen (near Kunnam)
- Sangrose Laboratories (in Mavelikkara) specialises in the manufacture of soft-gelatin capsules. It is also one of the only companies in the world to manufacture clofazimine.
- Kerala Wood Industries is a local splints and veneers manufacturing company. It was established in 1965 under the Small-scale Industries Development Corporation (SIDCO).
Mavelikkara assembly constituency is part of Mavelikkara (Lok Sabha constituency). This Lok Sabha constituency consisted of Chengannur, Mavelikkara, Kayamkulam, Pandalam, Thiruvalla, Kallupara until 2008. Since the Lok Sabha Delimitation in 2008, the assembly constituencies have comprised Changanassery, Kuttanad, Mavelikkara(SC), Chengannur, Kunnathur(SC), Kottarakkara and Pathanapuram. The constituency is now reserved for a scheduled caste candidate.
Kodikkunil Suresh of the INC has represented the Mavelikkara Parliament constituency since 2009. C.S. Sujatha of the (CPI-M) represented the Mavelikkara Parliament constituency from 2004 to 2009. M. Murali (INC) has represented the Mavelikkara Assembly constituency since 2006.